Ethereum Casper implementation

Domain: Supply Chain

Problem identification: 

The “Nothing at Stake” problem of PoS consensus mechanisms.

Why Blockchain: 

To improve the traceability of the supply network.

Functional Description

Blocks are organized in a tree structure. The tree is shaped by the blocks that successful miners choose to extend. The chain selection algorithm chooses the heaviest path as main chain, where a block’s weight depends on how dense its subtree is.

Consensus mechanism used

  • Greedy Heaviest Observed Subtree (GHOST)

Current status

  • Implemented in Ethereum 2.0

Focus point commentary indicating the value of the case study in relation with learning modules

Learning Modules Focus Points

Consensus Presents a use case of the GHOST consensus mechanism


  • Limited ability to improve the network throughput

Alternative Approaches:

  • IoTA Tangle
  • Byteball


  1. V. Buterin and V. Griffith, “Casper the friendly finality gadget,” arXiv:1710.09437, 2017.
  2. Buterin, V., Reijsbergen, D., Leonardos, S., & Piliouras, G. (2019, May). Incentives in Ethereum’s hybrid casper protocol. In 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain and Cryptocurrency (ICBC) (pp. 236-244). IEEE.
  3. Website: